The last name accidentally traces the Y chromosome in English last naming rights. To balance the gender equation women should carry their own last name that traces the genetic material of the mitochondria!
Basically we would have four names
1. First Name - what people call you now, stays the same as it is
2. Middle Name - whatever, stays the same
3. Last Name - passed down from father to children. Women still loose their father's last name and gain the name of their husband. This name maintains the ethnic heritage of the Y chormosome, works just like is does now. Women loose it because they can't pass down a Y chromosome to the next generation.
4. Second Last Name (or some other term) - passed down from mother to children. Men and Women inherit this name from their mother. Like a regular last name men must change it when they get married because they can not pass down any mitochondrial DNA to the next generation. It keeps intact the heritage of the life force organelle - THE MATERNAL MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. It's a girls only club with humans.
That being said if women want to create a Second Last Name to trace their Mother Life Force DNA, they should get their DNA tested to see where approximately where their maternal heritage stems from and choose a 'second last name' that fits it!
Finally women get the same 'last naming' power as men do! If man wants to keep his maternal-mitochondrial name he can, but he can not pass it down to the next generation.
Do you know the 'ethnic' origin of your mitochondrial DNA? In case you forgot the mitochondria is responsible for making energy from food you eat!
It is the heart of the cell that produces in effect - a life force. The great thing is, only women are allowed to give this gift to the next generation. With a 'second last name' this knowledge can be preserved.
Question#1: Why should boys inherit this name if only going to be passed down by the girls? Isn't it just a moot waste of time for men?
Answer to Question#1: Since names relates to ethnic origins, wouldn't the boys be happy to know where their life force organelle comes from? It will remind they they are not just their father but also of their mother. I'm sure they'd be proud of their Irish, German, or whatever life force energy they carry in their cells. Also having to loose and get a new second last name, brings balance and harmony to marriage. It is a reasonable manner as when girls loose their 'Y-Chromosome' name. It links the two family lines not under one roof but two! This method sustains tradition and adds a new one. It does not cut anyone off. Rather it builds a bridge between the genders that maintains a dominant word for women as well as men - as balanced partners.
PS DO NOT CALL THIS SECOND LAST NAME, THE MATERNAL NAME, it'll just be too confusing! But I'm open to suggestions! I really do hope a woman can choose it! Second Last Name sounds silly.